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The second mechanical calculator known to us was produced by Englishman Samuel Morland (1625 - 1695), about 20 years after Pascal's. Like Pascal's, Morland's first device was also intended for adding and subtracting.

Like Pascal, though far less familiar today, Morland was a man of abroad genius and his calculating devices consumed only a fraction of his time and interest. He had a special interest in the arrangement of numbers, and in 1650 he published a «Perpetual Almanach» on a single sheet; it's sometimes found engraved on antique snuffboxes and sundials.

Morland's first invention derived from Napier's. In 1617 John Napier invented a calculating device known as «Napier's Bones»», an arrangement of numbers written on strips of wood or bone which, laid together in the right way, led to the desired result. It provided a method of constructing triangles to scale from given data by using graduated rods and circles. Since, consine and tangent of any angle could be read off the machine. Of course such a machine could not be a commercial success, so Morland looked around for something with more popular appeal.

Morland had heard about Pascal's machine and constructed an adding and subtracting machine with gear wheels operated by a stylus. Addition was performed by turning the wheels clockwise by the reverse. Only four inches by three inches and less than a quarter of an inch thick, this was in some ways the forerunner of the electronic pocket calculator.

But more was to come, including a Multiplying Calculator in 1673. Morland was now in full stride as an inventor. He designed a speaking trumpet that carried speech almost three miles. He was involved in the development of a private printing press for the king, designed a variation of the barometer, and developed a method to weigh anchors that used a pawl to prevent the anchor from running away. His home in Kennington near London was full of fascinating gadgets, such as a mechanical rotisserie he used to toast meat and eggs.

These inventions were not so important compared to his contribution in the area of one of the greatest engineering problems of the day: raising water to drain mines and supply homes.

Like Pascal, though far less familiar today, Morland was a man of abroad genius and his calculating devices consumed only a fraction of his time and interest. He had a special interest in the arrangement of numbers, and in 1650 he published a «Perpetual Almanach» on a single sheet; it's sometimes found engraved on antique snuffboxes and sundials.

Morland's first invention derived from Napier's. In 1617 John Napier invented a calculating device known as «Napier's Bones»», an arrangement of numbers written on strips of wood or bone which, laid together in the right way, led to the desired result. It provided a method of constructing triangles to scale from given data by using graduated rods and circles. Since, consine and tangent of any angle could be read off the machine. Of course such a machine could not be a commercial success, so Morland looked around for something with more popular appeal.

Morland had heard about Pascal's machine and constructed an adding and subtracting machine with gear wheels operated by a stylus. Addition was performed by turning the wheels clockwise by the reverse. Only four inches by three inches and less than a quarter of an inch thick, this was in some ways the forerunner of the electronic pocket calculator.

But more was to come, including a Multiplying Calculator in 1673. Morland was now in full stride as an inventor. He designed a speaking trumpet that carried speech almost three miles. He was involved in the development of a private printing press for the king, designed a variation of the barometer, and developed a method to weigh anchors that used a pawl to prevent the anchor from running away. His home in Kennington near London was full of fascinating gadgets, such as a mechanical rotisserie he used to toast meat and eggs.

These inventions were not so important compared to his contribution in the area of one of the greatest engineering problems of the day: raising water to drain mines and supply homes.

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