Материал готовится,

пожалуйста, возвращайтесь позднее

пожалуйста, возвращайтесь позднее

In 1423 the Doge of Venice gave a verbal balance sheet of the commercial state of his city. It gives some idea of the growing size and complexity of trade and finance in the early fifteenth century. He stated that 'Venetian exports to the whole world represent 10 million ducats a year; her imports amount to another ten million. On these twenty millions, she made a profit of four million, or interest at the rate of twenty per cent.'

1. The financial reality was probably less simple than that.

Nevertheless, balancing the import and export of international goods seems so familiar to us today that it is easy to forget that the Renaissance was the birthplace of modern capitalism. But it would be wrong to say that this was exclusively a European development. Just as European merchants bought and sold in the exotic markets of the east, they also began to use Arabic ways of doing business through their contact with the trading centres of North Africa and the Middle East.

At the beginning of the thirteenth century, a merchant from Pisa called Fibonacci wrote a series of influential books on mathematics, using his commercial experience with Arabic ways of calculating profit and loss. In 1202 he completed his study of mathematics and calculation entitled Liber abbaci, based on his time working in Algeria using Hindu-Arabic numerals. In his commercial exchanges with Arab merchants in the eastern bazaars, Fibonacci realized that the European practice of using Roman numerals and the abacus was awkward and time-consuming.

2. Hindu-Arabic numerals were much better because they allowed for complex and more abstract solutions to calculating profit and loss.

So Fibonacci carefully explained the nature of the Hindu-Arabic numerals from 0 to 9, as well as the use of the decimal point. He also used them in solving commercial problems, such as deciding on weights and measurements, bartering, and charging interest. If this seems elementary today, we should remember that the signs for addition, subtraction, and multiplication were unknown in Europe before Fibonacci.

The Arabic commercial practice that Fibonacci copied came from much earlier Arabic developments in mathematics and geometry. Around AD 825 the Persian astronomer al-Khowarizmi had written a book that included the rules of arithmetic for the decimal system, and his Latinized name provided the foundation of modern mathematics: the algorithm.

3. In the same way, the word ‘algebra’ was adopted from the Arabic word for restoration, ‘as-jabru’.

Fibonacci's new methods were gradually adopted in the trading centres of Venice, Florence, and Genoa, as Italian merchants realized that new ways of keeping records of more complex and international transactions were needed.

4. Payment on goods was often in silver or gold, but as sales increased and more than two people become involved in any one business deal, new ways of trading were required.

One of the most significant innovations was the bill of exchange, which was the earliest form of paper money. This was the ancestor of the modern cheque, which originated from the medieval Arabic 'sakk'. When you write a cheque, you draw on your creditworthiness at a bank. Your bank will honour the cheque when the holder presents it for payment. Similarly, by 1350 Italian traders were paying for merchandise with a paper bill of exchange drawn from a powerful merchant family. This bill would be paid when presented on a specific date, or upon delivery of the goods.

1. The financial reality was probably less simple than that.

Nevertheless, balancing the import and export of international goods seems so familiar to us today that it is easy to forget that the Renaissance was the birthplace of modern capitalism. But it would be wrong to say that this was exclusively a European development. Just as European merchants bought and sold in the exotic markets of the east, they also began to use Arabic ways of doing business through their contact with the trading centres of North Africa and the Middle East.

At the beginning of the thirteenth century, a merchant from Pisa called Fibonacci wrote a series of influential books on mathematics, using his commercial experience with Arabic ways of calculating profit and loss. In 1202 he completed his study of mathematics and calculation entitled Liber abbaci, based on his time working in Algeria using Hindu-Arabic numerals. In his commercial exchanges with Arab merchants in the eastern bazaars, Fibonacci realized that the European practice of using Roman numerals and the abacus was awkward and time-consuming.

2. Hindu-Arabic numerals were much better because they allowed for complex and more abstract solutions to calculating profit and loss.

So Fibonacci carefully explained the nature of the Hindu-Arabic numerals from 0 to 9, as well as the use of the decimal point. He also used them in solving commercial problems, such as deciding on weights and measurements, bartering, and charging interest. If this seems elementary today, we should remember that the signs for addition, subtraction, and multiplication were unknown in Europe before Fibonacci.

The Arabic commercial practice that Fibonacci copied came from much earlier Arabic developments in mathematics and geometry. Around AD 825 the Persian astronomer al-Khowarizmi had written a book that included the rules of arithmetic for the decimal system, and his Latinized name provided the foundation of modern mathematics: the algorithm.

3. In the same way, the word ‘algebra’ was adopted from the Arabic word for restoration, ‘as-jabru’.

Fibonacci's new methods were gradually adopted in the trading centres of Venice, Florence, and Genoa, as Italian merchants realized that new ways of keeping records of more complex and international transactions were needed.

4. Payment on goods was often in silver or gold, but as sales increased and more than two people become involved in any one business deal, new ways of trading were required.

One of the most significant innovations was the bill of exchange, which was the earliest form of paper money. This was the ancestor of the modern cheque, which originated from the medieval Arabic 'sakk'. When you write a cheque, you draw on your creditworthiness at a bank. Your bank will honour the cheque when the holder presents it for payment. Similarly, by 1350 Italian traders were paying for merchandise with a paper bill of exchange drawn from a powerful merchant family. This bill would be paid when presented on a specific date, or upon delivery of the goods.

Загрузка...

Выбрать следующее задание

Ты добавил

Выбрать следующее задание

Ты добавил