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[MUSIC] So, today I will give you the second introductory lecture that will explain to you some basic facts about the brain anatomy and also cognitive neuro-imaging methods that will be used in our course. So, this lecture will help you to understand the results of the neuroeconomic studies. So during the whole course, we will focus on the neurobiological mechanism of decision making. And to be honest this is a very complex task, and first of all because the brain is a very complex device. The brain consists of billions of neurons, and each neuron has thousands of connections, so all together it makes the most complex device in the universe. Some neuroscientists are really skeptical whether we can really fully understand the system, but other neuroscientists are more optimistic. So brain consist of various cells and first of all consist of neurons. The neuron is our basic unit of the brain. As you remember, neuron consists of their cell body, of dendrites, and of the axon. So dendrites accumulate in formation from other neurons, from sensory organs. Soma or the cell body Integrate this information and produces an action potential. An action potential propagates an axon and induces some neuro mediators to the synaptic cleft, and activate the next neuron or, for example, a muscle. So, if we will simply slice the brain, we will see immediately a large difference between gray and white matter. So, gray matter consists of cell bodies, and most of the neuroeconomic studies focus on the gray matter; on the human cortex. White matter consists of axons. So, basically white matter consists of connections between different brain regions. Anyway, if we will make a closer look inside those white matter, we will find some small clusters of neurons, so called nuclei. So, for example, the nucleus accumbens is a very important area for decision-making. The nucleus accumbens or sometimes we call this region" ventral striatum," the lower portion of striatum is critical for the evaluation of the expected values for the option during decision making. So sometimes we'll also focus on some brain regions inside of the brain. How to navigate within this very complex system, so if you'd really like to know more about the new anatomy, about the masses used in neuroecnomics, I strongly recommend you to read more specialized books. So some maze books are available, for example is this book on Cognitive Neuroscience is a nice review of basic facts of human neuro-anatomy and also common neuroscience matters. Today, I will only give you some very basic facts that you need for this course. So we can divide the brain in four major regions. For example into the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe and temporal lobe. During this course we will focus on the frontal lobe. So a lot of really important brain areas are localized in the frontal lobe, and these brain areas are involved in the decision making. So you have to remember that each region in the brain has own label. For example, each sulcus, each gyrus has its own name. For example, central sulcus, pre-central gyrus, postcentral gyrus. But we will not use this labels during this course. So, instead we will use a more abstract way to label different brain regions. For example, we will use dorsal ventral name mention to localize brain region. This dimension refers, this excess refers to animals anatomy. So, dorsal means closer to the back. Ventral, closer to the belly.