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[SOUND]. [MUSIC] So, before we will start our journey into neuroeconomics, I would like to make a short stop and discuss some philosophical major implications of neuroeconomics. So, as we will see, using brain imaging techniques. We can actually predict our decisions. So as you see here, this is example from Brian Kuntson's study that will be discussed in the follow up lectures. We can predict purchasing decisions of the subjects. It's not an ideal prediction, but it's still above chance level. So, already now, we can predict our decisions. By brain activity. Does it change our view to the nature of our decisions. Our view on our freedom to their idea of review. I personally think that, it does change our review on freedom in general. So, are we free when we make decisions? So, it's an illusion that we can make a free decisions. But our decisions in reality are preprogrammed by our brain. We simply do not know the reasons of our decisions. And we explain our decisions by some external additional factors. Simply not knowing the actual reason why neuron networks programmed or selected certain decisions. So, this actually not a new idea in neuroscience. That we have an illusion of our control over decisions. So, Benjamin Libet conducted the famous experiment already this 30 years ago. So he invented a very smart technique. Imagine you see a version of the clock on the screen. You see this moving dot. And now you have a very simple decision to make, please move left or right finger. At any moment of time, so that would be a voluntary decision to move finger. But please, remember the position of the dot at the moment when you will be aware of your decision to move your finger. So, with this technique, we can actually detect the moment when you become aware of the decision to make movement with your finger. So with this technique Libet contacted a very smart experiment and recorded 30 years ago the brain signal related to the decision making. So he actually used eg electronic [UNKNOWN] to detect brain activity related to the decision. Now here you see a simplified version of his results. So this line indicates a brain signal related to the decision to move finger. A red line, vertical red line indicates a moment when subject became aware about their decision to move finger. But you see that brain signals starts. Far before people become aware of their intentions. So, a couple of hundred milliseconds before we become aware of our intention, we can predict the decision by brain activity. So, it raises a question about our freedom. It's just illusion that we can mm, have a control over our decisions. Perhaps our decisions are simply programmed by the brain. So, recently, this study was replicated with more complex functional MRI technique. Basically the same paradigm was used. Subject could see on a screen a stream of letters. And subject has to move finger, but she has to remember the letter on the screen. That is presented at the same time when the subject is aware of the intention to move finger. So, at the end of the trial, the subject is exposed to a matrix of letters, and on this matrix, she has to indicate which letter corresponds to the onset of the decision. So, with this technique we can detect at which moment. Subject became aware about the intention,the intention to make a move. So here we see a result of the functional MRI study. On the right, you see a graph representing a prediction of the decision. Derived from the brain data.