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Professor Charles Bailyn: Okay now, we didn't have sections this week, in case you didn't notice, and therefore you didn't have an opportunity to discuss the problem set during section. So, I thought I would say a few words about it now - here is the problem set. You probably can't read it at this typeface but that's okay. So, let's see, problem zero is just a stupid way of making you read the policies. Never mind that. Problem set one, problem one: here are exercises in one-digit scientific notation. I don't have rules for this. As I mentioned last time, the only rule is common sense. I think there might be some difficulty with the last one. This business of taking things to the one third power is important because you keep ending up with a cubed equals something, and you have to figure out what to do about that. So, let me not do this particular problem, let me do a different one for you.

Supposing you had (6 x 104)1/3. And you might be tempted to say, well okay, that's 61/3 times 104/3. And that leads you to a bad place, because 104/3 is not the notation we want. We want this to be an integer up there. What does it mean to be a 1 with 4/3 of a zero after it? And so, you don't like that. So, the way to deal with this is to regroup. This is (60 x 103)1/3. That's 601/3 x 101. What's 601/3? Well, 4 times 4 times 4, as it happens, is 64, and that's close enough for me. So, this is 4 x 101. So, that's just an example of how these kinds of things where you take things to fractional powers, either the square root, which is to the 1/2, or the cube root to the 1/3.

All right, the next problem. Let's see, Neptune's moon Nereid has an orbital period of almost exactly one Earth year. If the mass of Neptune is something or other, what's its semi-major axis? So, you have P and M and you're asked for A. That's a completely straightforward plug-and-chug problem because there's an equation that relates these three things and the only tricky thing about this is that you have to make sure the units come out right.

All right, the next one looks similar in form, but it isn't. Consider a Sun-like star orbited by a planet with a period of eighty years. So, we have P — the separation of the planet and the star appears to be 20 arc seconds. So we have an angle, that's α. How far away is the star? And you want to know D. Okay, there is no equation that contains all three of those things and so this, although it looks similar in form, is actually a substantially more difficult problem.

Going on, problem four. Okay the important — in fact, there is such a star, blah, blah, does this fact make any difference in the forgoing calculation? Explain. The important thing to note about this is that I'm not asking you to do a calculation. This is not a calculation problem; this is a comment. You're supposed to say something about how the calculation would go if you were to do it, but you don't have to actually calculate anything there.

And then, finally, this last problem. This is the sort of essay question here. The point here as I've written down on the — there's about Pluto. The point here as I've written down on the actual paper itself — there's no right answer to this. This is a thought question. There are some people I know from the course evaluations who get disturbed by this because they have the feeling that science ought to have right answers; that is, after all, the point. And I keep asking these sort of touchy-feely, humanities kinds of questions. Revel in it, go with it.

Supposing you had (6 x 104)1/3. And you might be tempted to say, well okay, that's 61/3 times 104/3. And that leads you to a bad place, because 104/3 is not the notation we want. We want this to be an integer up there. What does it mean to be a 1 with 4/3 of a zero after it? And so, you don't like that. So, the way to deal with this is to regroup. This is (60 x 103)1/3. That's 601/3 x 101. What's 601/3? Well, 4 times 4 times 4, as it happens, is 64, and that's close enough for me. So, this is 4 x 101. So, that's just an example of how these kinds of things where you take things to fractional powers, either the square root, which is to the 1/2, or the cube root to the 1/3.

All right, the next problem. Let's see, Neptune's moon Nereid has an orbital period of almost exactly one Earth year. If the mass of Neptune is something or other, what's its semi-major axis? So, you have P and M and you're asked for A. That's a completely straightforward plug-and-chug problem because there's an equation that relates these three things and the only tricky thing about this is that you have to make sure the units come out right.

All right, the next one looks similar in form, but it isn't. Consider a Sun-like star orbited by a planet with a period of eighty years. So, we have P — the separation of the planet and the star appears to be 20 arc seconds. So we have an angle, that's α. How far away is the star? And you want to know D. Okay, there is no equation that contains all three of those things and so this, although it looks similar in form, is actually a substantially more difficult problem.

Going on, problem four. Okay the important — in fact, there is such a star, blah, blah, does this fact make any difference in the forgoing calculation? Explain. The important thing to note about this is that I'm not asking you to do a calculation. This is not a calculation problem; this is a comment. You're supposed to say something about how the calculation would go if you were to do it, but you don't have to actually calculate anything there.

And then, finally, this last problem. This is the sort of essay question here. The point here as I've written down on the — there's about Pluto. The point here as I've written down on the actual paper itself — there's no right answer to this. This is a thought question. There are some people I know from the course evaluations who get disturbed by this because they have the feeling that science ought to have right answers; that is, after all, the point. And I keep asking these sort of touchy-feely, humanities kinds of questions. Revel in it, go with it.

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