Материал готовится,

пожалуйста, возвращайтесь позднее

пожалуйста, возвращайтесь позднее

It would be nice to be

objective in life, in many ways. The problem is that we have

these color-tinted glasses as we look at all kinds of situations. For example, think about

something as simple as beer. If I gave you a few beers to taste and I asked you to rate them

on intensity and bitterness, different beers would occupy

different space. But what if we tried

to be objective about it? In the case of beer,

it would be very simple. What if we did a blind taste? Well, if we did the same thing,

you tasted the same beer, now in the blind taste,

things would look slightly different. Most of the beers will go into one place. You will basically not

be able to distinguish them, and the exception, of course,

will be Guinness. (Laughter)

Similarly, we can think about physiology. What happens when people expect

something from their physiology? For example, we sold people

pain medications. Some people, we told them

the medications were expensive. Some people, we told them it was cheap. And the expensive

pain medication worked better. It relieved more pain from people, because expectations

do change our physiology. And of course, we all know that in sports, if you are a fan of a particular team, you can't help but see the game develop from the perspective of your team.

So all of those are cases in which

our preconceived notions and our expectations color our world. But what happened

in more important questions? What happened with questions

that had to do with social justice? So we wanted to think about

what is the blind tasting version for thinking about inequality? So we started looking at inequality, and we did some large-scale surveys around the U.S. and other countries. So we asked two questions: Do people know what kind of

level of inequality we have? And then, what level of inequality

do we want to have? So let's think about the first question. Imagine I took all the people in the U.S. and I sorted them from

the poorest on the right to the richest on the left, and then I divided them into five buckets: the poorest 20 percent,

the next 20 percent, the next, the next,

and the richest 20 percent. And then I asked you to tell me

how much wealth do you think is concentrated in each of those buckets. So to make it simpler,

imagine I ask you to tell me, how much wealth do you think

is concentrated in the bottom two buckets, the bottom 40 percent? Take a second. Think about it

and have a number. Usually we don't think. Think for a second,

have a real number in your mind. You have it?

Okay, here's what lots

of Americans tell us. They think that the bottom 20 percent has about 2.9 percent of the wealth, the next group has 6.4, so together it's slightly more than nine. The next group, they say, has 12 percent, 20 percent, and the richest 20 percent, people think

has 58 percent of the wealth. You can see how this relates

to what you thought.

Now, what's reality? Reality is slightly different. The bottom 20 percent

has 0.1 percent of the wealth. The next 20 percent

has 0.2 percent of the wealth. Together, it's 0.3. The next group has 3.9, 11.3, and the richest group

has 84-85 percent of the wealth. So what we actually have

and what we think we have are very different.

What about what we want? How do we even figure this out? So to look at this, to look at what we really want, we thought about

the philosopher John Rawls. If you remember John Rawls, he had this notion

of what's a just society.

objective in life, in many ways. The problem is that we have

these color-tinted glasses as we look at all kinds of situations. For example, think about

something as simple as beer. If I gave you a few beers to taste and I asked you to rate them

on intensity and bitterness, different beers would occupy

different space. But what if we tried

to be objective about it? In the case of beer,

it would be very simple. What if we did a blind taste? Well, if we did the same thing,

you tasted the same beer, now in the blind taste,

things would look slightly different. Most of the beers will go into one place. You will basically not

be able to distinguish them, and the exception, of course,

will be Guinness. (Laughter)

Similarly, we can think about physiology. What happens when people expect

something from their physiology? For example, we sold people

pain medications. Some people, we told them

the medications were expensive. Some people, we told them it was cheap. And the expensive

pain medication worked better. It relieved more pain from people, because expectations

do change our physiology. And of course, we all know that in sports, if you are a fan of a particular team, you can't help but see the game develop from the perspective of your team.

So all of those are cases in which

our preconceived notions and our expectations color our world. But what happened

in more important questions? What happened with questions

that had to do with social justice? So we wanted to think about

what is the blind tasting version for thinking about inequality? So we started looking at inequality, and we did some large-scale surveys around the U.S. and other countries. So we asked two questions: Do people know what kind of

level of inequality we have? And then, what level of inequality

do we want to have? So let's think about the first question. Imagine I took all the people in the U.S. and I sorted them from

the poorest on the right to the richest on the left, and then I divided them into five buckets: the poorest 20 percent,

the next 20 percent, the next, the next,

and the richest 20 percent. And then I asked you to tell me

how much wealth do you think is concentrated in each of those buckets. So to make it simpler,

imagine I ask you to tell me, how much wealth do you think

is concentrated in the bottom two buckets, the bottom 40 percent? Take a second. Think about it

and have a number. Usually we don't think. Think for a second,

have a real number in your mind. You have it?

Okay, here's what lots

of Americans tell us. They think that the bottom 20 percent has about 2.9 percent of the wealth, the next group has 6.4, so together it's slightly more than nine. The next group, they say, has 12 percent, 20 percent, and the richest 20 percent, people think

has 58 percent of the wealth. You can see how this relates

to what you thought.

Now, what's reality? Reality is slightly different. The bottom 20 percent

has 0.1 percent of the wealth. The next 20 percent

has 0.2 percent of the wealth. Together, it's 0.3. The next group has 3.9, 11.3, and the richest group

has 84-85 percent of the wealth. So what we actually have

and what we think we have are very different.

What about what we want? How do we even figure this out? So to look at this, to look at what we really want, we thought about

the philosopher John Rawls. If you remember John Rawls, he had this notion

of what's a just society.

Загрузка...

Выбрать следующее задание

Ты добавил

Выбрать следующее задание

Ты добавил